Primary Motility  Disorders of the  Esophagus
 The Esophageal
 Mucosa
 The
 Esophagogastric  Junction
 Barrett's
 Esophagus
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OESO©2015
The Esophagogastric Junction OESO
The Esophageal Mucosa
300 questions
300 answers


Contributors

L.M.A. AKKERMANS
Department of Experimental Surgery, University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands A.P. ALBINO, PhD
Head of Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Transformation, Memorial-Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA
N.K. ALTORKI, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center, New York, USA
D. ANTONIOLI, MD
Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
H.D. APPELMAN, MD
Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
D. ARMSTRONG, MA, MRCP (UK), FRCP (C)
Intestinal Disease Research Unit, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
H. ASTE
Department of Gastroenterology, Endoscopy Unit, Ospedale San Martino, Genova, Italy
S. ATTWOOD, MCR, FRCS, FRCSI
Department of Clinical Surgery, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
J. BANCEWICZ, FRCS, FRCSI
Reader in Surgery, University of Manchester, Hope Hospital, Salford, United Kingdom
J.-Ph. BARBIER
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepatology-Gastroenterology, H˘pital LaŰnnec, Paris, France
R. BARDINI
Department of Surgery, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
C.M. BATE, MD
Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Albert Edward Infirmary, Wigan, United Kingdom
P. BECHI, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Surgical Clinic 3, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
J.R. BENNETT, MD
Gastro-intestinal Unit, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull, United Kingdom
L.H. BERNSTEIN, PhD
Professor and Scientific Director of the Cancer Surveillance Program, Department of
Preventive Medicine, USC School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
M.A. BIGARD
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepatology-Gastroenterology, CHU Nancy - H˘pitaux de Brabois, Vandoeuvre, France
W.V. BOGOMOLETZ
Anatomy-Pathology-Cytology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims, France
E. BOLLSCHWEILLER, MD, PhD
Surgery Clinic, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
G. BOMMELAER
Professor of Medicine, Service d'Hepato-Gastro-Enterologie, Hotel Dieu, Clermont-Ferrand, France
K.G. BOTROS
Deparment of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
P. BOUTELIER
Professor of Surgery, H˘pital Jean Verdier, Bondy, France
H.W. BOYCE Jr., MD
Professor of Medicine, Centre for Swallowing Disorders, USF Medical Center, Tampa, Florida, USA
C.G. BREMNER, MB, ChB (Wits), ChM (Wits), FRCS (Eng), FRCS (Edin) Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, USC Healthcare Consultation Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
R.M. BREMNER
Department of Surgery, USC Healthcare Consultation Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
E. BROSSARD
Otolaryngology Department, CHU Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
S. BRULEY DES VARANNES
Service d'Hepato-Gastroenterologie, H˘pital Guillaume et Rene LaŰnnec, Nantes, France
R. BUMM
Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
G. CADIOT
Department of Gastroenterology, H˘pital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France
A.J. CAMERON, MD
Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
N. CAMPIONI
Surgical-Oncological Division, Istituto Regina Elena, Rome, Italy
D.O. CASTELL, MD
Professor of Medicine and Chairman, Department of Medicine, The Graduate Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
I. CECCONELLO
Digestive Surgery Division, Sao Paulo University School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil
M. CELERIER
Professor of Surgery, H˘pital Saint Louis, Paris, France
G. CHAMPAULT
Professor of Surgery, H˘pital Jean Verdier, Bondy, France
T.K. CHAUDHURI, MD, FACG
Professor and Chief, Nuclear Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Hampton, Virginia, USA
M.Y.M. CHEN, MD
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, The Bowman Gray School
of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
S. COHEN, MD
Professor of Medicine, Chairman, Department of Medicine, Temple University Health
Sciences Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
J.-M. COLLARD, MD
Department of Surgery, St. Luc University Clinics, Brussels, Belgium
S. CORRENTI, MD
Department of Surgery, R. Silvestrini Hospital, Perugia, Italy
D. COUTURIER
Professor Gastroenterology, H˘pital Cochin, Paris, France
P. CUBERTAFOND
Professor of Surgery, H˘pital Universitaire Dupuytren, Limoges, France
P.-H. CUGNENC
Professor of Surgery, H˘pital LaŰnnec, Paris, France
K.M. DAS, MD, PhD, FRCP, FACP
Professor of Medicine, Molecular Genetics, UMDNJ, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
J.S. DE CAESTECKER, MD, MRCP
Consultant Physician, The Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom
J.M. DEBONNE
Hepatology-Gastroenterology, H˘pital d'Instruction des ArmÚes A. Laveran, Marseilles, France
M. DEI POLI
Professor of Surgery, General Surgery Division, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
A. DEL GENIO
Professor of Surgery, Division of Esophageal Surgery, Naples University, Naples, Italy
G. DELPRE
Institute of Gastroenterology, Beilinson Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel
T.R. DEMEESTER, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, USC Healthcare Consultation Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
N.J. DEMOS, MD
Clinical Associate, Professor of Surgery, 142 Palisada Avenue, Jersey City, Jersey, USA
M.D. DIEBOLD
Professor of Pathology, H˘pital Robert DebrÚ, Reims, France
M.F. DIXON
Reader in Gastrointestinal Pathology, Academic Unit of Pathology, School of
Medicine, Leeds, United Kingdom
E.D. DORVAL
Professor of Gastroenterology, H˘pital Trousseau, Tours, France
F. DUBOIS, MD
Professor of Surgery, Chirurgie Digestive, Centre Medico-Chirurgical de la Porte de Choisy, Paris, France
C. DUPONT
Professor of Pediatrics, H˘pital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris, France
A. DURANCEAU, MD
Professor of Surgery, H˘tel-Dieu de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
O. EKBERG, MD
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malm÷ General Hospital, Malm÷, Sweden
M. ENDO, MD
Professor of Surgery, 1 st Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
M.K. FERGUSON, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery,
University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
H. FEUSSNER, MD
Department of Surgery, Poliklinik Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
R.S. FISHER, MD
Professor of Medicine, Chief of Gastroenterology Section, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
J.-B. FLAMENT
Professor of Surgery, CHRU Reims - H˘pital Robert DebrÚ, Reims, France
J.-F. FLEJOU
Anatomy-Cytology-Pathology, H˘pital Beaujon, Clichy, Paris, France
P. FOUCAUD
Departement of Pediatrics, H˘pital AndrÚ Mignot, Versailles, France
B. FRAITAG
Jouveinal Research Institute, Fresnes, France
J.W. FRESTON, MD, PhD
Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA
P. FUENTES
Professor of Surgery, Department of Thoracic Surgery, H˘pital St. Marguerite, Marseilles, France
J.-P. GALMICHE
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepato-gastroenterology, CHRU, H˘pital G. et R. LaŰnnec, Nantes, France
H.S. GAREWAL, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Hematology-Oncology and Gastroenterology Division, Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA
C. GAUTIER-BENOIT
Professor of Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Dr. Schaffner, Lens, France
K. GEBOES
Professor of Pathology, University Ziekenhuis St. Rafael, Leuven, Belgium
K.R. GEISINGER, MD
Professor and Director, Department of Pathology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
R.J. GINSBERG, MD
Chief Thoracic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA
R. GIULI, MD, FACS, FCCP
Professor of Surgery, Department of Digestive Surgery, H˘pital Beaujon, Paris VII, University Clichy, Paris, France
S.N. CLICK, MD
Professor of Radiology and Chairman, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hahnemann University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
H.G. GOOSZEN, MD, PhD
Professor of Surgery, University Hospital, Leiden, The Netherlands
J.C. GRIMAUD
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepato-Gastroenterology, H˘pital Nord, Marseilles, France
V. GUARNER
Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City, Mexico
Y. HAMANAKA, MD
2nd Department of Surgery, Yamaguchi University, School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan
S.R. HAMILTON, MD
Professor of Pathology and Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Ross Research Building, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
J.W. HARMON, MD
Professor of Surgery, Chief Surgical Division, Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
E. HASSALL, MB ChB, FRCP (C)
Head, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia and BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
R.C. HEADING
Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine (RIE), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
T.P.J. HENNESSY, MCh, FRCS, FRCSI
Regius Professor of Surgery, Department of Clinical Surgery, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
C.A. HIEBERT, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Maine Medical Center, Potland, Maine, USA
L.D. HILL, MD
Department of Vascular Thoracic Surgery, Health Resources Building, Seattle, Washington, USA
R.A. HINDER, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Creighton University, School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
A.H. HOLSCHER, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
D. HOPWOOD, MD, PhD
Department of Pathology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom
C.W. HOWDEN , MD, FRCP, FACG, FCP
Professor of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
R.H. HUNT, FRCP, FRCP (Edin), FRCPC, FACG
Professor of Medicine, Head of Gastroenterology Division, McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
C. IASCONE
Professor of Surgery, General Clinical Surgery, UniversitÓ degli Studi la Sapienza, Rome, Italy
W. INAUEN
Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Inespital, Berne, Switzerland
J. ISOLAURI, MD
Department of Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
G.G. JAMIESON, MB, MS, FRACS, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia
J. JANSSENS, MD
Professor of Gastroenterology, University Ziekenhuizen, Leuven, Belgium
K. JEYASINGHAM, ChM, FACSE, FRCS
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom
L.F. JOHNSON, MD, FACP
Professor of Medicine, Director, Digestive Disease Division, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
S.G. JOLLEY, MD, Chtd
Surgery of Newborn Infants, Children and Adolescents, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
P.J. KAHRILAS, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Gastroenterology Section, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA
P. KEELING
Department of Clinical Surgery, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
A. KESHAVARSIAN, MD, FACP
Gastroenterology Division, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, USA
E. KLINKENBERG-KNOL
Department of Gastroenterology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
F. KLOTZ
Professor of Surgery, Hepatology-Gastroenterology, H˘pital d'Instruction des ArmÚes A. Laveran, Marseilles, France
S.J.M. KRAEMER, MD
Department of Surgery, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
R. LAMBERT
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepato-Gastroenterology, H˘pital Edouard Herriot, Lyons, France
B. LAUNOIS, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, H˘pital de Pontchaillou, Rennes, France
L. LE BODIC
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepato-Gastroenterology, CHRU, H˘pital Guillaume et Rene LaŰnnec, Nantes, France
T. LERUT, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, University Ziekenhuizen Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
M.S. LEVINE, MD
Professor of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
K.J. LEWIN, MD, FRCPath
Professor of Pathology and Medicine, Department of Pathology, UCLA Health Sciences Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
D. LIEBERMANN-MEFFERT, MD
Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
A.G. LITTLE, MD
Professor of Surgery, Chairman, Department of Surgery, University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
L. LUNDELL, MD, PhD
Department of Surgery, Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Sahigren's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
C. MAURAGE
Professor of Pediatrics, H˘pital de Clocheville, Tours, France
R.W. MCCALLUM, MD, FACP, FRACP (Australia), FACG
Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
N. MEADOWS
Consultant Pediatrician, Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom
E.H. METMAN
Professor of Internal Medicine, H˘pital Trousseau, Tours, France
M. MIGNON, MD
Professor of Gastroenterology, University of Paris VII, H˘pital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France
J. MILLS
International Medical Affairs Department, Glaxo Group Research Ltd., Uxbridge, United Kingdom
R.K. MITTAL, MD
Division of Gastroenterology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia,
Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
K. MOGHISSI, BSc, MD, FRCS (Ed), FRCS (Eng)
Consultant Thoracic Surgeon, BUPA Hospital Hull and East Riding, Hull, United Kingdom
A. MORALDI
Professor of Surgery, Ospedale S. Eugenio, University of Rome Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy
G.C. O'SULLIVAN, Mch., FRCSI
Department of Surgery, Mercy Hospital, Cork, Ireland
H. OBERTOP
Professor of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
L.C. OLBE
Department of Surgery II, Sahlgren's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
J.-B. OLLYO
Maladies des Voies Digestives, rue des Terreaux 20, 1003 Lausanne, Switzerland
S.R. ORENSTEIN, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University Pediatric Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
R.C. ORLANDO, MD
Professor of Medicine and Physiology, Gastroenterology Section, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
W.C. ORR, PhD
Sleep and GI Physiology Laboratories, Baptist Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
M.B. ORRINGER, MD
Professor of Surgery, Head of Thoracic Surgery Section, Taubman Health Care Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
D.J. OTT, MD
Department of Radiology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
D. PAREKH, MD
Department of Surgery, USC Healthcare Consultation Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
C.A. PELLEGRINI, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
A. PERACCHIA, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Department of General Surgery and Clinical Oncology, Hospital Policlinico Monteggia, Milan, Italy
J.H. PETERS, MD
Department of Surgery, USC Healthcare Consultation Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
H.W. PINOTTI, MD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Head of Digestive Surgery Division, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
C.E. POPE II, MD
Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine,
University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
F. POTET
Professor of Pathology, University of Paris VII, H˘pital Bichat-Claude Bernard Paris, France
S. RAMEL, MD
Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
I.E. RICHTER, MD
Professor of Medicine, Director of Clinical Research, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
R.H. RIDDELL, MD, FRCPath, FRCP (C)
Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
M. ROBASZKIEWICZ
Professor of Gastroenterology, Hepatology-Gastroenterology, CHU Brest, H˘pital Augustin Morvan, Brest, France
J.A. ROTH, MD
Professor of Surgery and Chairman, Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of
Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
C.O.H. RUSSELL, MB, ChB, MS, FRACS
GI Surgery, Mornington Peninsula Hospital, Frankston, Victoria, Australia
F. SAIDI
Department of Surgery, Modarress Hospital, Saadatabad, Tehran, Iran
J.A. SALO, MD
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
R.E. SAMPLINER, MD
Professor of Medicine, Chief of Gastroenterology Section, Department of Internal
Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA
J. SAROSIEK, MD, PhD
Research Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
R.T. SATALOFF, MD, DMA
Professor of Otolaryngology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
C. SCARPIGNATO, FCP, FACG
Professor of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Maggiore Hospital, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
M. SCHAPIRO, MD, FACP, FACG
Clinical Professor of Medicine, Center for the Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
M.N. SCHOEMAN, MBBS, FRACP
Gastroenterology Department, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
A. SICULAR, MD, FACS
800 A 5th Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
J.R. SIEWERT
Professor of Surgery, Head of Surgery Clinic, Poliklinik Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
D.B. SKINNER, MD, DsC (Hon), FACS
Professor of Surgery, President of The New York Hospital, Cornell Medical Center, New York, USA
S. SLOAN, MD
Section of Digestive Diseases, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
A. SMOUT, MD
Department of Gastroenterology, Academisch Ziekenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
T.C. SMYRK, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, Clarkson Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
S.J. SONTAG, MD, FACG, FACP
Director of Endoscopy Clinics, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Ambulatory Care, Hines, Illinois, USA
S.J. SPECHLER, MD
Gastroenterology Division, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
H.J. STEIN, MD
Department of Surgery, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
J. TESTART
Professor of Surgery, Surgery Clinic, H˘pital Charles Nicolle, Rouen, France
R.J.S. THOMAS
Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Western Hospital, Footscray, Victoria, Australia
L. TIBBLING, MD, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
E. TISSOT
Professor of Surgery, Department of Digestive Surgery, H˘pital Edouard Herriot, Lyons, France
N.A. TOBEY, PhD
Gastroenterology Research, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
H. TONNESEN, MD
Department of Surgery, University of Copenhagen, Herlev County Hospital, Herlev, Denmark
G. TOUGAS, MD
Division of Gastroenterology, McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
F.V. TRASTEK, MD
Thoracic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
G. TRIADAFILOPOULOS, MD, FACP
Associate Professor of Medicine, Chief of Section of Gastroenterology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA
G.N.J. TYTGAT
Professor of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
H.C. URSCHEL Jr., MD
Department of Thoracic-Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, 3600 Gaston, Suite 1201, Dallas, Texas, USA
P. VINCENT
Department of Bacteriology and Virologie A, Faculty of Medicine, Lille, France
T.N. WALSH, MCh, FRCSI
Department of Clinical Surgery, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
A. WATSON, MD, FRCS (Ed), FRCS (Eng), FRACS
Professor of Surgery, The Wellington Hospital, London, United Kingdom
M. WIENBECK, MD
Professor of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine 3, Zentralklinikum Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany
W.A. WILLIAMSON, MD
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, USA
G.H. WILLITAL
Professor of Surgery, Pediatric and Surgical University Clinic, Munster, Germany
A. YASUI, MD
Department of Surgery, Saiseikai General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan
G.P. YOUNG, MD, FRACP
Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
G. ZANINOTTO, MD
Department of Surgery, Istituto di Chirurgia Generale II, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
B. ZILBERSTEIN
Digestive Surgery Division, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil



Publication date: May 1994 OESO©2015