Primary Motility  Disorders of the  Esophagus
 The Esophageal
 Esophagogastric  Junction

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Volume: Primary Motility Disorders of the Esophagus
Chapter: Physiology

37. Should multilevel simultaneous sensors pressure recordings and continuous radiologic monitoring during swallowing be mandatory to avoid erroneous interpretation of pressure recordings ?
G. Beauchamp (Montreal)

38. What are the different functions of the cricopharyngeal muscle ?
O. Ekberg (Philadelphia)

39. Pharynx : the timing of bolus flow depends on its volume and consistency
Ph. Ducrotte (Rouen)

40. Is the location of the UES still controversial ?
O. Ekberg (Philadelphia)

41. The musculature of the UES is the site of tonic contractions at rest
J.R. Crist (Boston)

42. What is the interpretation of chalasia of the pharyngoesophageal segment ?
O. Ekberg (Philadelphia)

43. The upper esophageal sphincter responds to esophageal distension by contraction or relaxation according to the rapidity and volumetric features of the distension
J. Dent (Adelaide)

44. How can electromyography contribute to the understanding of the activity of the UES during deglutition ?
W. Pelemans (Leuven)

45. Is the musculature of the esophagus without contraction at rest ?
P. Meunier (Lyons)

46. What is the nature of longitudinal muscle contraction along the esophagus and its relationship to that of circular muscle contraction ?
J.R. Crist (Boston)

47. What are the actions of the pharyngeal and parapharyngeal muscles ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

48. Can compensation and decompensation of pharyngeal function be assessed with a scoring system ?
O. Ekberg (Philadelphia)

49. The upper esophageal sphincter is well developed at birth, and esophageal function as a whole matures within a few days
G.H. Willital (Münster)

50. The motor activity of the esophagus persists even in the isolated organ
A.C. Duranceau (Montreal) G.G. Jamieson (Adelaide)

51. Does the inactivity of the esophageal body at rest indicate that there is no tonic activity of excitatory nerves to this region ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

52. Is there an explanation of the progressive aspect of the contraction induced by swallowing in the smooth musculature of the esophageal body ?
P. Meunier (Lyons)

53. What is the basis of the peristaltic nature of swallowing-induced contraction ?
K. Bielefeldt, G. Strohmeyer (Dusseldorf)

54. Doesn't the latency gradient existing for « on » contractions of the esophagus demonstrate the existence of an intramural regulation of cholinergic origin, which may play a part in esophageal peristalsis ?
J.R. Crist (Boston)

55. What are the experimental means of altering the latency gradient of the « on » and « off » responses of the circular layer of smooth muscle of the esophageal body ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

56. What are the differences between peristalsis in the striated muscle part of the esophagus and that in the smooth muscle part ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

57. What is the effect of anticholinergic agents on esophageal motility ?
J. Fournet (Grenoble)

58. The rapidity and amplitude of esophageal peristalsis is determined by a peripherally localized gradient of cholinergic innervation
J.-R. Crist (Boston)

59. Can esophageal peristalsis be explained by contractions of cholinergic or noncholinergic origin alone ?
J.-R. Crist (Boston)

60. What is the evolution of the LES from birth to the end of the first year ?
G.H. Willital (Munster)

61. Is neurologic stimulation an important mechanism in maintenance of basal tone of the LES ?
J.R. Crist (Boston)

62. Can atropine and cholinergic agents reduce the lower esophageal sphincter pressure ?
J. Dent (Adelaide)

63. Are there circular muscles at the lower esophageal sphincter ?
J. Mebis, K. Geboes (Leuven)

64. Do the results of biochemical studies help to define the exact site of the circular muscle of the sphincter ?
C. G. Bremner (Johannesburg)

65. What is the origin of tonic contraction in the lower esophageal sphincter ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

66. Is it not constantly activated by an intrinsic myogenic system ?
J.-R. Crist (Boston)

67. Is the tonic contraction of the muscle of the lower esophageal sphincter accompanied by electrical phenomena ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

68. Is the hormonal regulation of the lower esophageal sphincter function known ?
M. Mignon, G. Cadiot, E. Malikova (Paris)

69. What is the role of circulating gastrin levels ?
G.Cadiot, E. Malikova, M. Mignon (Paris)

70. What is the role of the other hormones ?
J. Dent (Adelaide)

71. Should the hormonal regulation of the lower esophageal sphincter be discarded ?
E. Malikova, J. Musil, M. Mignon (Paris)

72. Is it now possible to say that no one hormone or nerve can be considered as the only, or even the major determinant of tone in the lower esophageal sphincter ?
J. Christensen (Iowa City)

73. Is sphincter relaxation clearly neurogenic and dependent of vagal control during swallowing ?
C. Roze (Paris)

74. Is the neurotransmitter known ?
J.R. Crist (Boston)

75. Are the same nerves responsible for peristalsis in the smooth muscle of the esophageal body and relaxation of the LES ?
J.R. Crist (Boston)

76. What are the bioactive substances capable of relaxing the LES ?
J.-R. Crist (Boston)

77. Is it now established that the LES and stomach have opiate receptors ?
R. W. McCallum (Charlottesville)

78. Has the presence of distinct types of muscarine receptors in the LES been detected in man as in animals ?
J.R. Crist (Boston)

79. Is there any effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on the lower esophageal sphincter pressure ?
C. Scarpignato (Parma)

Publication date: May 1991 OESO©2015