Primary Motility  Disorders of the  Esophagus
 The Esophageal
 Esophagogastric  Junction

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Volume: Primary Motility Disorders of the Esophagus
Chapter: Painful esophageal peristalsis (nutcracker esophagus)

259. What definition is to be employed for the « nutcracker esophagus » ?
D-O. Castell (Philadelphia)

260. Even more than DES, this disorder currently seems the commonest idiopathic functional syndrome in patients with extra cardiac thoracic pain
R-E. Clouse (Washington)

261. Is the natural history of the nutcracker esophagus known ?
J-E. Richter (Birmingham)

262. Do the clinic aspects of nutcracker esophagus parallel the features of the irritable bowel syndrome ?
J-E. Richter (Birmingham)

263. Are there any specific radiographic features ?
L. Engelholm, J. De Toeuf, J. Jeanmart (Brussels)

264. Are not the abnormalities existing in the distal esophagus during radionuclide transit due to intermittent gastroesophageal reflux ?
J.E. Richter (Birmingham)

265. Could they be due to intermittent non-peristaltic contractions ?
S.B. Benjamin (Washington)

266. What are the factors, other than the contraction wave, that may contribute to modifying bolus transit time ?
J-N. Blackwell (Newtownabbey)

267. What is the explanation for the lack of correlation between the amplitude and duration of repetitive contractions and the rate of fluid transport ?
W.J. Dodds (Milwaukee) J.E. Richter (Birmingham)

268. Is the nutcracker esophagus primarily a manometric diagnosis ?
J.E. Richter (Birmingham)

269. Is peristalsis always normal ?
R. W. McCallum (Charlottesville)

270. What criteria are available to distinguish the syndrome of painful esophageal peristalsis from that of diffuse spasm ?
G. Cargill (Paris)

271. Is the nature of the relaxation of the LES defined in this syndrome ?
D-O. Castell (Philadelphia)

272. What is the frequency of peristaltic waves compared to DES ?
R. W. McCallum (Charlottesville)

273. Does the provocation of pain during manometry resolve the problems of interpretation ?
B. Dupin (Marseilles)

274. What is the diagnostic value of the different pharmacologic tests ?
G. Cargill (Paris)

275. How specific are the anomalies of esophageal motility detected by manometry ?
J. Salducci (Marseilles)

276. What is the correlation between esophageal scintigraphy and manometry ?
J.E. Richter (Birmingham)

277. Isn't the simultaneous measurement of pH essential to the diagnosis ?
J. Janssens, G. Vantrappen (Leuven)

278. Is the esophageal clearance always normal in nutcracker esophagus ?
J.E. Richter (Birmingham)

279. How important is electromyography ?
J. Dent (Adelaide)

280. Is there any objective benefit from therapeutic dilatation in patients with nutcracker esophagus ?
E.H. Metman, C. Gendreau (Tours)

281. Nitroderivatives
R.W. McCallum (Charlottesville)

282. Can nifedipine be considered as having any effect in preventing pain in the « nutcracker esophagus » ?
D.O. Castell( Philadelphia)

283. What are the effects of diltiazem ?
D.O. Castell (Philadelphia)

284. As in the irritable bowel syndrome, may emotional factors modify pain perception in the nutcracker esophagus ? Should these patients be given psychotropic treatments ?
J.E. Richter (Birmingham)

285. Is the nutcracker syndrome reversible ?
A. Keshavarsian (Maywood)

Publication date: May 1991 OESO©2015