Plenary Session 4

Attenzione: apre in una nuova finestra.

Plenary Session 4 Sunday, September 2, 4:30 - 6:15 pm
Primary disorders / Esophageal body
Diffuse Esophageal Spasms – Nutcracker esophagus – Intermediate forms

Chairs: D.O. Castell (Charleston) – P.O. Katz (Philadelphia)
Discussant: R. Tutuian (Bern)

General Concepts

  • How does circular and longitudinal muscle contraction coordinate during normal peristalsis and discoordinate in spastic   
    motor disorders? R.K. Mittal (San Diego)
  • How and why is the latency of distal esophageal contraction affected in diffuse esophageal spasm? R.K. Mittal (San Diego)
  • How has HRM (and stationary impedance?) redefined the diagnosis of disorders with impaired peristalsis in the esophagus? What is the value of the latency point? K.R. DeVault (Jacksonville)
  • Is there a relationship among physiology/pathophysiology, function/dysfunction and biomechanics of longitudinal muscle in the esophagus? J.G. Brasseur (University Park)
  • What is the evidence that DES, nutcracker esophagus, and achalasia represent a spectrum of diseases?


  • What is the role of nitric oxide in pathophysiology of DES? D.Sifrim (London)
  • Does the absence of neural abnormalities in DES exclude a neurogenic origin? R.K. Mittal (San Diego)
  • What is the importance of associated hiatal hernia or GER in DES?
  • Is the LES always normal in DES?  Is it easy to differentiate from achalasia?  R.K.Wong (Bethesda)
  • Is there an effective therapy for DES? D.O. Castell (Chatleston)
  • What is the success rate of surgical treatment? C.A.Pellegrini (Seattle)

Nutcraker Esophagus

  • Is the natural history of nutcracker esophagus known? J.E.Richter (Tampa)
  • What criteria allow for differentiation of this syndrome from that of DES? K.R. DeVault (Jacksonville)
  • Is esophageal clearance always normal? R.Tutuian (Bern)